Three Tipos del País
José Honorato Lozano is considered as one of the “master chroniclers” of the mid-19th century Philippines, particularly renowned for the local genres of letras y figuras (compositions in which scenes and figures are used to create the letters of a name) and tipos del país (images of the types and customs of the country). Tipos del país were a specific genre of artwork popularised in the Philippines in the early-mid 19th century. Primarily sold as picturesque souvenirs to international traders or tourists in Manila, tipos del país works typically appear as a series of images depicting local inhabitants and their costumes. This group of three tipos del país images by José Honorato Lozano are strong examples of the genre. They are painted in luminous colour and meticulous detail, against a minimal background, with considerable attention paid to fabric and dress. In the variations in dress, and the evidently luxurious quality of the ornaments and fabrics, these images also show the prosperity, hybridity and cosmopolitanism of people living in the newly-opened port of Manila in the mid-19th century.